E-ISSN 1858-8360 | ISSN 0256-4408
 

Short Communication 


Are there paternal components in human milk?

Ahmed Ali Hassan, Zainab Taha, Abdullah Al Nafeesah, Ishag Adam.

Abstract
Breastfeeding is indeed the foundation for life and gives growing children a once-ina-lifetime opportunity to grow and develop to their full potential. There are considerable studies on the role of maternal contribution to human milk components. It would be very important and interesting to explore the existence of a paternal contribution into the composition of human milk. Proceeding on this track, there is an abundant evidence that supports the hypothesis of paternal contribution in human milk composition. This evidence could be strengthened by the fact that a small population of the fetal cells migrate during pregnancy and stay for long time in the maternal body. This phenomenon is known as microchimerism. It has been well documented that some of these cells are of mature immunological and hematopoietic stem cells character. As the fetal parts contain 50% from each parent, any fetal parts in the maternal body (i.e., fetal microchimerism) should contain paternal components as well. The paternal genetic material is more responsible for the determination of the fetal sex (female XX or male XY). The variations
in maternal human milk component that was clearly understood as related to child sex will substantially provide a solid basis for the investigation of the new hypothesis. In this short report, we conclude by briefly foregrounding the proposed role for paternal contribution on human milk composition for consideration and suggesting new directions for future research that would shed light on this subject.

Key words: Human milk; Maternal components; Paternal components; Breast milk.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Hassan AA, Taha Z, Nafeesah AA, Adam I. Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudan J Paed. 2019; 19(2): 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798


Web Style

Hassan AA, Taha Z, Nafeesah AA, Adam I. Are there paternal components in human milk?. http://www.sudanjp.com/?mno=47019 [Access: March 28, 2020]. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Hassan AA, Taha Z, Nafeesah AA, Adam I. Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudan J Paed. 2019; 19(2): 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Hassan AA, Taha Z, Nafeesah AA, Adam I. Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudan J Paed. (2019), [cited March 28, 2020]; 19(2): 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



Harvard Style

Hassan, A. A., Taha, . Z., Nafeesah, . A. A. & Adam, . I. (2019) Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudan J Paed, 19 (2), 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



Turabian Style

Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Zainab Taha, Abdullah Al Nafeesah, and Ishag Adam. 2019. Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics, 19 (2), 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



Chicago Style

Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Zainab Taha, Abdullah Al Nafeesah, and Ishag Adam. "Are there paternal components in human milk?." Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics 19 (2019), 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Zainab Taha, Abdullah Al Nafeesah, and Ishag Adam. "Are there paternal components in human milk?." Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics 19.2 (2019), 84-87. Print. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Hassan, A. A., Taha, . Z., Nafeesah, . A. A. & Adam, . I. (2019) Are there paternal components in human milk?. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics, 19 (2), 84-87. doi:10.24911/SJP.106-1556954798





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